Page 6781 

25 April 1916 

I wish to put in the RECORD the secret treaty of Verona of November 22, 1822, showing what this 
ancient conflict is between the rule of the few and the rule of the many. I wish to call the attention of 
the Senate to this treaty because it is the threat of this treaty which was the basis of the Monroe 
doctrine. It throws a powerful white light upon the conflict between monarchial government and 
government by the people. The Holy Alliance under the influence of Metternich, the Premier of 
Austria, in 1822, issued this remarkable secret document : 

[American Diplomatic Code, 1778 - 1884, vol. 2 ; Elliott, p. 179.] 


The undersigned, specially authorized to make some additions to the treaty of the Holy 
Alliance, after having exchanged their respective credentials, have agreed as follows : 

ARTICLE 1. The high contracting powers being convinced that the system 

of representative govern- ment is egually as incompatible with the monarchial principles as the 
maxim of the sovereignty of the people with the high devine right, engage mutually in the 
most solemn manner, to use all their efforts to put an end to the system of representative 
governments, in whatever country it may exhist in Europe, and to prevent its being 

introduced in those countries where it is not yet known. 

ART. 2. As it can not be doubted that the liberty of the press is the most powerful 

means used by the pretended supporters of the rights of nations to the detrement of those 
princes, the high contracting parties promise reciprocally to adopt all proper measures to 
suppress it, not only in their own states but also in the rest of Europe. 

ART. 3. Convinced that the principles of religion contribute most powerfully to keep 
nations in the state of passive obedience which they owe to their princes, the high 
contracting parties declare it to be their intention to sustain in their respective States those 
measures which the clergy may adopt, with the aim of ameliorating their own interests, so 
intimately connected with the preservation of the authority of the princes ; and the contracting 
powers join in offering their thanks to the Pope for what he has already done for them, 
and solicit his constant cooperation in their views of submitting the nations. 

ART. 4. The situation of Spain and Portugal unite unhappily all the circumstances to 
which this treaty has particular reference. The high contracting parties, in confiding to 
France the care of putting an end to them, engaged to assist her in the manner which may 
the least compromit them with their own people and the people of France by means of a 

subsidy on the part of the two empires of 20,000,000 of francs every year from the date of 
the signature of this treaty to the end of the war.' 

ART. 5. In order to establish in the Peninsula the order of things which exhisted before 
the revolution of Cadiz, and to insure the entire execution of the articles of the present 
treaty, the high contracting parties give to each other the reciprocal assurance that as long as 
their views are not fulfilled, rejecting all other ideas of utility or other measure to be taken, 
they will address themselves with the shortest possible delay to all the authorities exhisting 
in their States and to all their agents in foreign countries, with the view to establish 
connections tending toward the accomplishment of the objects proposed by this treaty. 

ART. 6. This treaty shall be renewed with such changes as new circumstances may give 
occasion for, either at a new congress or at the court of one of the contracting parties, as 
soon as the war with Spain shall be terminated. 

ART. 7. The present treaty shall be ratified and the ratifications exchanged at Paris within 
the space of six months. 

Made at Verona the 22d November, 1822. 

For Austria 



For Prussia 




For Russia 


I ask to have printed in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD this secret treaty, because I think it 
ought to be called now to the attention of the people of the United States and of the world. This 
evidence of the conflict between the rule of the few verses popular government should be emphasized 
on the minds of the people of the United States, that the conflict now waging throughout the world 
may be more clearly understood, for after all said the great pending war springs from the weakness 
and frailty of government by the few, where human error is far more probable than the error of the 
many where aggressive war is only permitted upon the authorizing vote of those whose lives are 
jeopardized in the trenches of modern war. 

Mr. SHAFROTH. Mr. President, I should like to have the senator state whether in that treaty 
there was not a coalition formed between the powerful countries of Europe to reestablish the 
sovereignty of Spain in the Republics of South and Central America? 

Mr. OWEN. I was just going to comment upon that, and I am going to take but a few moments 
to do so because I realize the preasure of other matters. This Holy Alliance, having put a Bourbon 
prince upon the throne of France by force, then used France to suppress the constitution of Spain 
immediately afterwards, and by this very treaty gave her a subsidy of 20,000,000 francs annually to 
enable her to wage war upon the people of Spain and to prevent their exercise of any measure of the 
right of self-government. The Holy Alliance immediately did the same thing in Italy, by sending 
Austrian troops to Italy, where the people there attempted to exercise a like measure of liberal 
constitutional self-government ; and it was not until the printing press, which the Holy Alliance so 
stoutly opposed, taught the people of Europe the value of liberty that finally one country after another 
seized a greater and greater right of self government, until now it may be fairly said that nearly all the 
nations of Europe have a very large measure of self government. However, I wish to call the 
attention of the Senate and the country to this important history in the growth of constitutional 
popular self-government. The Holy Alliance made its powers felt by the wholesale drastic 
suppression of the press in Europe, by universal censorship, by killing free speech and all ideas of 
popular rights, and by the complete suppression of popular government. The Holy Alliance having 
destroyed popular government in Spain and in Italy, had well-laid plans also to destroy popular 
government in the American colonies which had revolted from Spain and Portugal in Central and 
South America under the influence of the successful example of the United States. It was because of 
this conspiracy against the American Republics by the Europian monarchies that the great English 
statesman, Canning, called the attention of our government to it, and our statesmen then, including 
Thomas Jefferson, took an active part to bring about the declaration by President Monroe in his next 
annual message to the Congress of the United States that the United States should regard it as an act of 
hostility to the government of the United States and an unfriendly act if this coalition or if any power 
of Europe ever undertook to establish upon the American Continent any control of any American 
Republic or to acquire any territorial rights. This is the so-called Monroe doctrine. The threat 
under the secret treaty of Verona to suppress popular governments in the American Republics is the 
basis of the Monroe doctrine. This secret treaty sets forth clearly the conflict between monarchial 
government and popular government and the government of the few as against the government of the 
many. It is a part, in reality, of developing popular sovereignty when we demand for women equal 
rights to life, to liberty, to the possession of property, to an equal voice in the making of the laws and 
the administration of the laws. This demand on the part of the women is made by men, and it ought 
to be made by men as well as by thinking, progressive women, as it will promote human liberty and 
human happiness. I sympathize with it, and I hope that all parties will in the national conventions 
give their approval to this larger measure of liberty to the better half of the human race. 

The experience we have had, has made us acquainted with the many advantages that have been taken 
by the Society of its intervention in the marriages of the House of Austria, and of those which have 
been effected in other kingdoms, France, Poland, and in various duchies. Forasmuch assembling, 
proposing with prudence, selecting choice persons who may be friends and families of the relatives, 
and of the friends of the Society. 

It will be easy to gain the princesses, making use of their valets; by that coming to feed and nourish 
with relations of friendship, by being located at the entrance in all parts, and thus become acquainted 
with the most intimate secrets of the familiars. Secret Instructions of The Company of Jesus: Chapter